She was a greater talent than many of the men of this period.
Mary Lou Williams
Women’s History Month was established in 1981, to celebrate the achievements women had made in the United States, At that time, the celebration only lasted a week, but in 1995, it officially became a month-long celebration. Since March is Women’s History Month, we are going take this opportunity to shine some light on the women of jazz throughout the years.
To start, we are going to learn about a few of the less recognized women who truly paved the way in the early days of jazz.
Cora “Lovie” Austin (1887 – 1972)
Not nearly as well-known today as her peer, Lil Hardin Armstrong, Lovie Austin was a successful bandleader, composer, musician, arranger, and singer, during the blues era of the 1920’s. In her heyday, she and Armstrong were two of the best jazz blues piano players around! After moving to Chicago, she began her career in vaudeville, playing the piano and accompanying singers, including her idol, Ma Rainey. She also had her own band, the Blues Serenaders. As a composer, she worked with Louis Armstrong on “Heebie Jeebies” and she composed Bessie Smith’s famous song, “Down Hearted Blues”, as well as many others. With the decline of the blues in the early 1930’s, she went on to become the musical director of the Monogram Theater, a T.O.B.A. venue*, for 20+ years.
Another famous jazz pianist, the trailblazer Mary Lou Williams, said Austin was her biggest influence, after seeing her perform and conduct as a child. Williams said: “My entire concept was based on the few times I was around Lovie Austin. She was a fabulous woman and a fabulous musician, too. I don’t believe there’s a woman around now who could compete with her. She was a greater talent than many of the men of this period”.
To celebrate this unsung heroine, here are a couple of her songs:
Performing “Southern Blues” with Ma Rainey, here is Lovie Austin and her Blues Serenaders: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
Here’s Bessie Smith singing “Down Hearted Blues”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
*T.O.B.A., Theatre Owners Booking Association, was the vaudeville circuit for African-American performers.
Blanche Calloway (1902 – 1978)
Before there was Cab Calloway, there was his older sister Blanche Calloway. She was a singer, composer, and bandleader – the first female, and first Black female, to lead an all male orchestra. She began her career in a touring production of “Shuffle Along,” which took her to Chicago, and where she stayed. It was there that Cab visited her, and he began his own musical career, which she heavily influenced. At the start, they sometimes performed together, and she was a bigger name, and a higher earner, than he was. It was around this time that she became the first female to lead an all-male band, Blanche Calloway and her Joy Boys!
Eventually, that dynamic shifted, and Cab’s fame eclipsed hers, but that didn’t stop her from creating her own path. She went on to have a solo career for a while, and she became more and more involved in civil rights. Later in life, she lived in Florida, where she became the first African-American woman to be a voting clerk, and where she was also the first African-American woman to vote in 1958. And in 1968, she started one of the first large Black owned companies, Afram House, which was a mail order cosmetics company for African-American women. While Blanche may not be the Calloway that immediately comes to mind, she was a fearless pioneer in so many ways and should be celebrated.
Here she is with her Joy Boys performing “Just a Crazy Song,” which starts out with a “Hi-Hi-Hi” that may have inspired Cab’s “Hi-De-Ho”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
Valaida Snow (1904 – 1956)
You’ve heard of Louis Armstrong, but have you heard of “Little Louis,” Valaida Snow? She was a musical virtuoso and entertainer who was christened “Little Louis” by Louis Armstrong himself! Born into a show business family, with a mother who was a music teacher and a father who managed the Pickaninny Troubadours, she learned the violin, cello, bass, banjo, harp, accordion, clarinet, saxophone, trumpet by age 15, AND she also danced and sang. She chose the trumpet to be her instrument of choice, at a time when very few women played brass instruments. W.C. Handy dubbed her the “Queen of the Trumpet,” and she made a name for herself here in the states, as well as abroad. She toured extensively, spending a good deal of time across the pond in the 1930’s, where she was greatly celebrated in London and Paris. Unfortunately, because she was a woman in a male-dominated field, she never achieved the lasting notoriety that she should have, but her talent was recognized and respected by her peers.
Here she is singing and playing trumpet on “You’re Driving Me Crazy”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
Viola Smith (1912 – 2020)
Another trailblazing musician who got her start in a family band was drummer Viola Smith. She and her sisters were the Smith Sisters Orchestra (originally Schmitz), which was founded by her father. The drums became her instrument because by the time she joined the band, all the other instruments she liked had been chosen by her older siblings. Throughout the 1920’s and 30’s, the Smith Sisters Orchestra was famous on the RKO vaudeville circuit. In 1938, she and her sister Mildred started the Coquettes, an all-girl orchestra that was around until 1942. She was called the “female Gene Krupa” and the “fastest girl drummer.” Feeling frustrated for the lack of recognition and respect she and other female musicians were receiving, she wrote an article in DownBeat Magazine called “Give Girl Musicians a Break!,” arguing that women could play as well as the men. And she continued to play in both her own band and in many others throughout the rest of her professional career, which lasted until 1975. Not one to give up a good thing, Smith continued to drum, until about a year before her death, this past fall, at age 107!
Here she is with the Coquettes performing “Snake Charmer”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
In a male-dominated world, these women helped pave the way for more female musicians, bandleaders, and artists to follow in their footsteps. While their achievements might have been overshadowed by those of their male counterparts, they are no less talented or innovative. They left behind hidden gems in the jazz world, and it’s time to let them shine!
Who are other female trailblazers we should highlight? Let us know!
The Cleveland Jazz Orchestra wants to SPRING FORWARD into jazz education!
With many schools struggling with music education (if they are able to offer it at all), the CJO is focused on continuing the educational outreach projects we began last spring.
Our goal is to reach $3000 by April 1st, so we can help our community, assist our educational partners, and inspire new generations of jazz lovers!
To learn more & donate: http://bit.ly/CJOSpringFwd
Or text “CJO4NEO” to 44-321